The countries which emerged from the breakup of Titoist Yugoslavia have met with widely varying fates. While the challenges of political and economic transition have for the most part been successfully met in the former country's Northern republics (Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia), the Southern republics of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro, as well as the former autonomous region of Kosovo, have performed poorly by comparison. Paul Garde proposes the notion of "quasi-states" to describe these four entities. All suffer from fragile institutions, a paucity of resources, and a dependence on the international community, which is working hard to keep Bosnia and Macedonia afloat, a fact that Paul Garde welcomes. But Kosovo and Montenegro should be recognized as independent states, since these so-called "Serbian provinces" are in reality capable of standing on their own two feet without central control from Belgrade. One thing is certain: the international community will have to provide aid to these quasi-states for a long time to come in order to ensure stability in the Balkans.